The real threat to women’s sports? It’s not trans women

Author’s note: On August 2, 2021, weightlifter Laurel Hubbard of New Zealand became the first transgender woman to compete at the Olympic Games. She failed to record a clean lift. 

Originally published May 13, 2021 

Transgender women have been eligible to compete at the Olympics since the 2004 Athens Games, but at this summer’s Tokyo Games, New Zealand weightlifter Laurel Hubbard could become the first.

According to International Olympic Committee guidelines, last updated in 2015, transgender women are eligible to compete if their total testosterone level in serum has been below 10 nanomoles per liter for at least 12 months. Weightlifting’s international federation follows these guidelines and Hubbard, who transitioned nearly ten years ago, is playing by the rules.

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But the news of Hubbard’s likely Olympic qualification still sparked debate. Some media outlets promoted narratives about unfairness, while an Australia-based group that claims to advocate for women’s sports issued a statement against Hubbard competing in Tokyo, saying that including transgender women “removes the basis of equality between men and women.”

Hold up.

Firstly, trans women are women.

Furthermore, arguing that trans women are a threat to “fairness” or “equality” in women’s sports isn’t just transphobic. The argument is also built upon a fallacy. Because women’s sports aren’t fair.

If women’s sports were fair, all athletes would have equal access to competitive opportunities.

And yet…

There was no widespread outrage five years ago at the 2016 Rio Games when the Olympic weightlifting program included 156 quota spots for men compared to 104 for women.

This summer’s Tokyo Olympics will actually mark the first time that weightlifting – a sport that has been included on every Olympic program over the last century – will welcome an equal number of men and women. In fact, the Tokyo Olympics are expected to be most gender-balanced Games in history, with women slated to make up 49 percent of all participants.

But an opportunity gap persists in other sports.

Sixteen men’s soccer teams will travel to Japan this summer, compared to 12 on the women’s side.

Cycling has spots for 300 men, but only 228 women.

And boxing – the most recent summer sport to include women – remains the most skewed; 206 men will travel to Tokyo, compared to only 80 women.

(Men, likewise, are excluded from two summer sports: artistic swimming and rhythmic gymnastics.)

ALSO FROM ON HER TURF: How will the IOC’s framework impact transgender athletes?

Outside of the Olympics, the playing field is far less level.

According to data compiled by the Women’s Sports Foundation, 87 percent of NCAA institutions are currently not in compliance with Title IX. That means nearly nine out of ten U.S. colleges are currently offering male students more access to sports than female students.

At the professional level, the gender opportunity gap is even wider.

For the top basketball players in the world, there are 450 roster spots in the NBA, compared to only 144 in the WNBA.

In cycling, the best men compete in the grueling 21-stage Tour de France, while the current women’s equivalent is a single-stage “token gesture” race called “La Course.” British cyclist Lizzie Deignan won La Course” in 2020 and used her victory to advocate for a full women’s Tour de France.

And if women’s sports – and sports in general – were fair, that would mean doping isn’t a concern.

Yet… At the 2012 London Olympics, 21 medals were awarded in women’s weightlifting. Do you know how many of those medals were later stripped due to doping violations?

ELEVEN.

OUT OF TWENTY-ONE.

FIFTY-TWO PERCENT.

There will be no apology for the all caps because that is OUTRAGEOUS.

(On the men’s side, 7/24 medals were later stripped. So… also not great.)

If you want to be upset about an athlete being denied their Olympic moment, you would be much better off directing your energy at an actual threat to fair competition: dopers.

And if women’s sports were fair, that would mean women are paid equally.

Yet… If you’re a professional women’s hockey player, it will take you hundreds of years (yes, hundreds) to make what the average NHL player makes in a single season.

In basketball, Stephen Curry – the highest paid NBA player – will make the equivalent of 350-plus WNBA salaries this year alone.

Even tennis – the sport so often lauded for its commitment to equal pay – has a gender pay gap outside of the four Grand Slams. In 2020, the top 200 men on the ATP tour averaged $568,257 in prize money, nearly twice the average of the top 200 women on the WTA tour ($388,739).

And if women’s sports were fair, that would mean women’s sports are invested in equitably.

Yet… As was evident at the NCAA women’s division one basketball tournament earlier this year, women’s sports are often treated like a burden, rather than an opportunity for growth.

In addition to providing men’s players with better weight training facilities, the NCAA also provided them with a more robust digital media hub and marketing opportunities, two key tools to increasing viewership and revenue.

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These aren’t accidents. They are decisions. From the omission of the word “men’s” from the men’s Final Four logo to withholding “March Madness” branding from the women’s tournament, the NCAA has continually perpetuated the idea that men’s basketball is the norm, and treated it as such.

The takeaway? Don’t blame the women’s game for not making money when the real culprit is decades of underinvestment, fueled by sexist beliefs.

And if women’s sports were fair, that would mean women have equal access to coaching and administrative opportunities.

Yet… Since the U.S. enacted Title IX in 1972, the number of female head coaches of women’s collegiate sports teams has declined significantly, from 90 percent in 1971 to 43 percent in 2019.

More often than not: the person making those hiring decisions is also a man. Across all three NCAA divisions, nearly 80% of collegiate athletic directors are men (and of those, over 85 percent are white).

The disproportional hiring of men is also true in Olympic sports. At the 2018 PyeongChang Olympics, only eight of the 66 coaches for the U.S. team were women (seven of whom worked in figure skating).

Even the best professional women’s teams aren’t coached by women. Only one of the ten current NWSL teams is coached by a woman. Five of 12 WNBA teams. Three of six NWHL teams. And of those nine women, almost all are cisgender white women.

Women are also underrepresented in the operations and administrative positions that govern sports and leagues.

Of the 31 international federations that oversee summer Olympic sports, zero have executive boards with equal gender representation (according to 2018 data from the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations).

In fact, only 1 of the 31 federations had a board with at least 40 percent women, while 18 of 31 had less than 25 percent representation of women.

And if women’s sports were fair, sexual harassment and abuse would not be an issue.

Yet… Athletes like Greek sailing champion Sofia Bekatorou feared that speaking up could jeopardize an Olympic dream.

Institutions like Louisiana State University failed to adequately investigate sexual misconduct complaints.

And of course, Larry Nassar was able to abuse hundreds of gymnasts, enabled for decades by those around him.

There are plenty of threats to “fairness” and “equality” in women’s sports.

But those threats don’t include trans women.

While the IOC first created a policy to include trans women in the world’s most elite competition nearly two decades ago, legislators in state houses across the United States are currently waging a fight to bar trans girls of all ages from participating in recreational sports.

Since January, over 30 U.S. states have either discussed or formally introduced legislation that would prohibit or limit transgender children from playing sports. Many of these bills are promoted under a false narrative of wanting to “protect” or “save” women’s sports. These bills often cite “fairness” as the reason to exclude trans women from women’s teams. Some even include the word in the title, like Idaho’s “Fairness in Women’s Sports Act.”

The Women’s Sports Foundation has condemned this legislation, imploring the legislators, “to stop using girls’ and women’s sports as a vehicle to discriminate.”

Not only is the attempt to bar transgender women – a group that is disproportionately affected by discrimination, harassment, and deadly violence – often transphobic and dangerous, but it also undermines the very cause it purports to uphold.

As Minnesota Lynx coach Cheryl Reeve recently wrote in an essay for Sports Illustrated, “Transgender exclusion pits woman athletes against one another, reinforces the harmful notion that there is only one right way to be a woman and distracts us from the real threats to women’s sports.”

In the fight for fairness in women’s sports, don’t become distracted from the real threats: access, pay, investment, representation, sexual abuse, and doping, to name a few. Because to confront those issues, it’s vital to make sure all athletes marginalized by gender – and not just cisgender women (and not just cisgender white women) – are at the table.

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    Diana Flores looks to break down gender barriers with turn as AFC offensive coordinator in 2023 Pro Bowl

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    Diana Flores admits she was surprised when she became a viral sensation last spring, courtesy of a 15-second slow-motion clip showcasing her evasive maneuvers and fancy footwork while leaving at least three defenders in the dirt during Mexico’s 2022 national collegiate flag football championship.

    “I never expected someone to record that moment,” said Mexico City native Flores, who led her team – the Monterrey Tech Borregos – to their third consecutive national title as a senior last May. “I was just having fun. I was just playing the game I love and then days later to see that it was viral on the internet — it was crazy. But at the same time, it was exciting because I remember when I was younger, I didn’t have a lot of flag football role models to follow. So now, for me to be a role model for many boys and girls that play my sport is something that really makes me happy and proud and also motivates me to keep getting better.”

    Flores, who led the Mexico Women’s National Flag Football Team to a gold medal at the 2022 World Games, will have the chance to promote her sport on one of the world’s biggest stages this weekend when she serves as the AFC offensive coordinator for the NFL’s 2023 Pro Bowl Games, featuring the first-ever AFC vs. NFC Flag football games on Sunday in Las Vegas.

    Organized in partnership with RCX Sports, the NFL’s flag football operating partner, and the International Federation of American Football (IFAF), Sunday’s Pro Bowl event will feature three 7-on-7 AFC vs. NFC flag games. Each game will be 20 minutes in length (two halves) and played on a 50-yard field with 10-yard end zones. Flores will be joined by Peyton Manning as the AFC head coach and Ray Lewis as defensive coordinator. On the NFC side, U.S. Women’s National Flag Football team quarterback Vanita Krouch will serve as offensive coordinator, with Eli Manning as NFC head coach and DeMarcus Ware as defensive coordinator.

    “I think that this has been one of the best things in my life,” she recently told On Her Turf about her Pro Bowl appointment. “It is like a dream. I mean, I grew up watching football, watching the NFL, playing flag football. And now to be able to be part of all of this — it is bigger than my biggest dreams.”

    Flores’ football dreams began as when she was just 8 years old. Her father — who played quarterback for the perennial football powerhouse Monterrey Tech program — took her to a practice and she fell in love with the sport. But as the time there were no teams for girls her age, so she played with girls twice her age and used it to her advantage, focusing on her own abilities and sharpening her skills. By age 14 she was playing NFL Flag in Mexico, where she was the only girl in the league, and at 15 she started playing NFL Flag in the U.S, where she finally played on an all-girls team.

    ALSO FROM ON HER TURF: U.S. flag football star Vanita Krouch ‘living the dream’ ahead of NFL Pro Bowl debut as NFC coordinator

    “I remember when I started playing, I used to receive a lot of like comments, directly and indirectly from other people, like, ‘Why do you play that sport? That’s not a girls’ sport, that sport is for boys, you’re get injured, you’re going to get hurt, don’t play with boys, that’s too rude.’ And the list keeps going. But my mom and dad were so supportive. They always encouraged me not to listen to anybody, to just follow my passion.

    “And I think thanks to them, I’ve always had this mentality that gender doesn’t matter. It just matters how passionate you are about your dreams, how hard you work for what you want to achieve. And that you will always demonstrate what you’re made for, depending on the hard work you do. So, I’ve lived through that [negativity], I have experienced that. And I think that it has been one of my biggest blessings to be able to experience — for myself — what sport can do and how gender barriers get broken when you follow your dreams and you connect with other people through your passion.”

    At just 16 years old, Flores made Mexico’s national team, playing in the first of four Flag Football World Championships – so far. Last summer at the World Games in Birmingham, Alabama, the 24-year-old Flores led Mexico to a 6-0 record, which included two wins over the U.S. women, who took silver. In the gold medal game against the United States, she completed 20 of 28 pass attempts for 210 yards and four touchdowns in Mexico’s 39-6 victory. She finished the tournament with 23 touchdown passes, the third-most among women’s teams, and she was the only starting quarterback to beat USA’s star QB, Krouch, who is 19-1 in international tournament play.

    All that international experience so early in her career has given Flores a wise-beyond-her-years approach to playing flag football, a sport where she was frequently the only female player on the field and often the only Latin American as well.

    “When I first came to the U.S., it was a little shocking to notice that I was probably the only Latin American girl playing,” she recalls. “But I think that it was easy for me because I got all the support from my coaches and my teammates. And since a young age, I think that I started to realize that sometimes what you do is for something bigger than yourself. That’s why you have to always give your best, in any situation. Even at that young age, I understood that I was representing more than myself on the field, I was representing Latin American people, Latin American girls in a sport that [many people thought] was meant to be for boys.”

    RELATED: NFL still pushing for Olympic flag football with a chance ahead

    One door Flores hopes to help open is the one leading to the Olympics. Flag football is on the short list being considered for inclusion in Los Angeles in 2028 Los Angeles. As an ambassador for flag football for the NFL and the International Federation of American Football (IFAF), she’s participated in talks with the International Olympic Committee, and just last month she was joined by First Lady Dr. Jill Biden in Mexico City where they joined forced to promote women’s empowerment and inclusion.

    “I think for me, that experience is one of my top three,” she said of spending time with Biden. “I call them gifts from life, something that you didn’t expect it to happen, and somehow, one day, you’re right there in front of the First Lady. I admire her for what she does for boys and girls, for empowering woman and giving opportunities for everybody to achieve their dreams. So it was truly an honor to meet her, and also to be able to keep impacting my sport, not only on the field, but [off] the field, and have the opportunity keep inspiring others and keep impacting the world.”

    As for what she hopes fans at the Pro Bowl and viewers at home take away from Sunday’s flag football showcase, Flores hopes they’ll see the characteristics that made her fall in love with flag in the first place: creativity, speed, agility, teamwork, passion and a lot of heart.

    “I hope to show to all little girls and women that dreams come true, that nothing is impossible, to keep inspiring and opening opportunities and doors for women in sports, especially in the world of the NFL and football and flag football,” she says. “We’re going to make history, and I am so proud and happy for that. I’m really hoping that it is just the first step, not only for me, but for all the women that are coming after me.”

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    Flag football star Vanita Krouch ‘living the dream’ ahead of NFL Pro Bowl debut as NFC coordinator

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    When Vanita Krouch got the news that she was named NFC offensive coordinator for the 2023 Pro Bowl Games, featuring the first-ever AFC vs. NFC Flag football games on Sunday, the U.S. Women’s National Flag Football team quarterback admits her jaw nearly hit the ground.

    And then she realized something even more profound.

    “For the longest time, thinking about the moment, everything, you’re like, ‘Oh, my gosh, this is a dream come true. Is this really happening?’” said the 42-year-old Krouch, known as the “Tom Brady of flag football” with a 19-1 record as USA’s starting quarterback in international tournaments since 2018.

    “But then I started thinking to myself: You know what? None of us grew up thinking of this as a dream to obtain. So really, it’s kind of reversed where I’m living a dream. I get to be a pioneer in this growth of flag football for all and inclusion for all, youth and adults, [women and men]. It’s such an inclusive sport, and I get to be a part of this growth and still actively play. It’s exciting. I’m literally living the dream. I’m very much like, ‘Guys, don’t pinch me. Let me keep sleeping.’”

    Organized in partnership with RCX Sports, the NFL’s flag football operating partner, and the International Federation of American Football (IFAF), Sunday’s Pro Bowl event will feature three 7-on-7 AFC vs. NFC flag games. Each game will be 20 minutes in length (two halves) and played on a 50-yard field with 10-yard end zones. Krouch will be joined by Eli Manning as NFC head coach and DeMarcus Ware as NFC defensive coordinator. On the AFC side, Mexico Women’s National Flag Football quarterback Diana Flores will serve as offensive coordinator, with Peyton Manning as head coach and Ray Lewis as defensive coordinator.

    But Krouch’s journey to the Pro Bowl stage began under the unlikeliest of circumstances and was inspired by her own family odyssey, which began in Cambodia during the horrific regime of the Khmer Rouge in the late 1970s. Krouch’s mother, Phonnary Krouch, fled the country with three young sons in tow, running by night and hiding by day to escape, finding safety initially at a refugee camp in the Philippines. That’s where she welcomed Vanita, in September 1980, and two months later the family made its way to the United States. Krouch’s father exited the picture upon their arrival in America, leaving Phonnary to raise four children alone.

    “In a nutshell, my mom is an amazing woman,” said Krouch, who first found sports via an elementary school flyer advertising youth soccer in Carrollton, Texas. “On the journey, she had a lot of trials, tribulations, … and after our dad left us, it was just mom and four kids in this little one-bedroom apartment. So, it was a challenge. I’m just so amazed by her strength and will to never give up.”

    She also credits her mom for standing up to then-stereotypical notions that Asian girls should not play sports.

    “I’m just thankful, honestly, that my mom allowed me to break the Asian culture barriers of a woman playing sports because that’s not easy,” she said. “She faced a lot of backlash from the community. But she said, ‘Hey, my child’s making good grades. She’s healthy, she’s good. She’s staying off the streets. I don’t see a problem.’ And she just let me do it. I was just lucky to have a mom that let me spread my wings.”

    Krouch also had a few mentors along the way. Her elementary school PE teacher, Toni Neibes, stepped in to pay for those initial soccer fees and continued her support as Krouch transitioned to basketball in the fourth grade. She fell in love with the sport and excelled at it as well, eventually earning a full scholarship to play college basketball at Southern Methodist University. She wears the No. 4 to this day in honor of Niebes, who wore the same number as a young athlete. She also credits her fourth-grade teacher, Judy Ward, as having a lasting impact after the teacher made a habit out of showing up for her youth basketball games.

    She pays tribute to them both through her clothing line, 4Ward Apparel, which features ever-changing collections emblazoned with relevant slogans encouraging female empowerment, inclusion and her personal mantra of “paying it forward” – something she does with the line itself. Each month, Krouch donates a portion of the sales to individuals, families or organizations in need.

    After graduating SMU in 2003, Krouch continued to play basketball in semi-pro and adult leagues, but she was still searching for something to satisfy her competitive drive. She and a former college teammate stumbled on flag football during a Google search for local Dallas-area activities, and the rest – as they say – is history.

    “It was like I drank the Kool Aid and I never looked back,” she says of her start in flag in 2006. “It’s just like every game, every play is a new challenge, and it’s addictive for a competitor, so I just fell in love with flag. I actually think I’m way better at flag than I was at basketball.”

    She moved into the quarterback position through some sly maneuvering by current USA Women’s Flag Football head coach Chris Lankford. They were playing together in a local tournament when he “tricked” her into the QB position, despite Krouch knowing “zero football language.”

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    “One day I showed up for a tournament and I asked, ‘All right, guys, who’s our quarterback?’ And he says, ‘We’re looking at her,’” she remembers. They kept the plays simple, and her team made it to the playoffs that season. Krouch has been a QB ever since.

    Krouch joined the national team in 2016 and was inducted into the National Flag and Touch Football Hall Fame that same year. Last year at the 2022 World Games in Birmingham, Alabama, a 41-year-old Krouch set a new mark as the oldest Flag football player, man or woman, in the games, and she ranked second among women with 25 touchdown passes at the tournament where USA won silver.

    She aims to bring that expertise to the field at the Pro Bowl games, where she’s looking forward to seeing NFL players take on the flag football style type of plays. “Flag is a very finesse, quick game, a lot of footwork, and these guys can’t grab or hold, no downfield contact or downfield block or anything off the line,” she explains. “So it’s going to be exciting just to see skill for skill, footwork for footwork, defense to offense, and to see flag football language with those type of elite athletes.”

    As for the biggest challenge, Krouch believes it will be crafting a concise playbook and language that puts everyone on the same page. “A challenge for me is getting a coach’s mindset,” she adds, “I have to actually come up with plays ahead of time and I don’t usually have premeditated plays in my head. I just read it so for me to tell Kirk Cousins or Geno Smith [what to do], it will be different, you know?”

    But beyond the Pro Bowl, Krouch is excited that flag is being considered for inclusion as an exhibition sport in the 2028 Summer Olympics. While she’s keeping a hopeful eye on that development, she’s also working to shape the next generation of potential athletes as a physical education teacher at La Villita Elementary in Irving, Texas.

    RELATED: NFL still pushing for Olympic flag football with a chance ahead

    “It’s an honor to be a role model – for other youth flag football players, for my students, both boys and girls,” says Krouch. “Then at my campus and in my community, it’s amazing to be able to break the barrier of like, ‘Asian women can’t do this.’ And then to be at my age, still doing this, I feel very lucky and blessed. …I think I still got some years in me.”

    As for what she hopes viewers and fans walk away with after watching the Pro Bowl flag games this weekend, Krouch feels confident folks will walk away enlightened by the show.

    “I just hope that they have fun with it,” says Krouch. “And for those who don’t know flag to be like, ‘Wow, that’s really amazing. Maybe that’s something I really can get my son or daughter into at a young age.’ So I just hope that they see that the sport is real – it’s not just something we play at recess. It’s a real thing now. I think they’ll see that the world loves it, the world can play it and is playing it.”

    Be sure to check back with On Her Turf later this week when we catch up with AFC coordinator and Mexico Women’s National Flag Football Team quarterback Diana Flores.  

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